Worn or missing enamel makes teeth more susceptible to tooth decay and decay. Small cavities aren't a problem, but if left to grow and rot, they can cause infections, such as painful dental abscesses. Worn enamel also affects the appearance of the smile. Teeth with thin, soft enamel, or without enamel are at risk of developing tooth decay, gum disease and tooth sensitivity in the early stages.
Healthy enamel protects teeth against these dental problems. Without this shock absorber, sensitive parts of the teeth are exposed. Dentin is the second layer of the tooth, containing thousands of microscopic tubules that lead to the tooth pulp (consisting of nerve endings and blood vessels). When these parts of the tooth are exposed to hot or cold food and beverages, uncomfortable pain occurs.
Tooth enamel is the outer protective layer that helps protect your teeth against dental decay, gum disease and tooth sensitivity. Healthy enamel is made up of minerals -- primarily calcium and phosphorus.
Weak enamel can develop because of genetics, environmental factors or both. It may also be caused by complications while a child is in the womb, such as low birth weight or premature birth.
As you eat and drink, bacteria in the plaque on your teeth use the sugars to make acids. The acid eats away at the minerals on your teeth and can lead to tooth decay.
Your saliva prevents decay by washing sugar out of your mouth and into your stomach, stops acid from causing damage and fights bacteria that cause plaque. Your saliva also helps repair the early stages of tooth decay by regaining the minerals lost to the plaque.
During this process, you may notice a white spot on your tooth where minerals have been lost. This is called a cavity or “caries” and can be stopped or reversed by regular brushing and flossing, fluoride treatment and eating healthier foods.
Decay is usually easier to treat in the early stages and X-rays can be used to identify problems. However, if the decay continues into the inner tooth material (pulp) and it becomes a hole, your dentist might need to perform root canal treatment.
In healthy teeth, a layer of hard enamel protects the crowns of your teeth -- the part above the gum line. Underneath that is a layer of cementum, which also protects the root surface.
Dentin is the second layer of a tooth (see photo below). This is soft and porous, and it connects to your tooth’s nerve fibers.
When dentin is exposed, it can become sensitive to hot and cold temperatures, acidic foods, and sweets. This sensitivity can be painful.
Dental erosion: This is loss of the outer layer of a tooth called enamel due to constant exposure to acidic food and drinks. Brushing soon after consuming these acids can actually increase the damage.
Gum recession: Sensitive teeth can also develop when gums recede and expose the roots of your teeth. The roots do not have enamel to protect them.
Tooth sensitivity can be temporary and usually disappears in four to six weeks, especially if it is related to a recent dental procedure, like a filling or a root canal. If sensitivity persists after treatment, talk to your dentist about possible causes.
Gum disease is caused by the build-up of plaque – a sticky substance that contains bacteria. Some bacteria in plaque are harmless, but others are harmful for the health of your gums.
If left untreated, plaque and tartar can cause damage to the teeth, gums and bones that support your teeth. This can lead to tooth loss and a range of other problems.
Mild cases of gum disease can usually be treated by maintaining a good level of oral hygiene and attending regular dental check-ups. More severe cases may require more specialist treatment.
Studies suggest that patients with chronic gum disease have a higher risk of developing heart disease, stroke or other vascular conditions. It's not clear exactly how this relationship works, but research suggests that inflammation from gum disease can contribute to the development of heart disease.
There are a number of conditions that can cause teeth to come in with enamel that is too weak, improperly formed or missing. One of the most common is called enamel hypoplasia (also known as tooth enamel hypoplasia or taurodontism).
Dental enamel is the hard, white layer that protects the inside of your teeth and prevents them from decaying. Without healthy enamel, your teeth are at risk for tooth decay, gum disease and sensitivity.
Teeth with thin or missing enamel often look yellowish, discolored and pitted. As the enamel erodes, more of your teeth’s tooth structure, called dentin, becomes exposed.
You can prevent tooth erosion and keep your teeth strong by adjusting your diet and practicing good oral hygiene habits. Drinking fluoridated water and brushing with a toothpaste that has a higher concentration of fluoride can help remineralize weakened enamel and reduce the risk of erosion.
Tooth enamel hypoplasia is an enamel defect characterized by thin or absent enamel. In some cases, the defect occurs only on part of the tooth surface, resulting in holes or grooves in the tooth enamel. In other cases, an entire tooth may have a too thin layer of tooth enamel, or it may not have any enamel. Teeth may come out without enamel as a result of hereditary problems or due to exposure to certain substances while teeth are erupting.
Both baby and permanent teeth can emerge with weak, malformed, or completely absent enamel. One of these conditions is enamel hypoplasia, which literally means “underdeveloped enamel”. A disorder that causes teeth to develop with thin, deficient enamel, sometimes manifested as a cavity in the tooth, or even a hole. In advanced cases, there is no enamel at all, leaving the most sensitive dentin exposed.
Under normal conditions, according to the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), special tooth cells called ameloblasts come from tooth enamel cells. If these ameloblasts are damaged or do not fully develop, enamel cannot develop normally either. For both baby teeth and permanent teeth, the accuracy of the teeth affected by enamel hypoplasia will depend on the timing and cause of the alteration. Your teeth are constantly subject to destructive substances, such as sugar and acids found in food, as well as to the risks of damage and injury.
This means that if a child contracted certain types of infections at age seven, their front teeth probably wouldn't be affected, but their second molars would be affected. For mouths with advanced enamel loss, artificial teeth can be installed as a solution to prevent further decay in the teeth, gums and the general structure of the jaw. Broken or broken teeth can expose the inside of the tooth, making it vulnerable to decay without enamel protection. In severe cases, your child's dentist may recommend covering hypoplastic teeth with dental crowns to protect them and restore their shape and function.
But did you know that sometimes children get teeth that don't have this protective coating? Learn more about this dental condition and the treatment options available for teeth without enamel. In amelogenesis imperfect, the genes that control enamel formation and development don't work properly in ameloblasts, the cells that create teeth. Without enamel, the sensitive part of the teeth is exposed and vulnerable to destructive substances, is much more susceptible to breakage and can become extremely sensitive and painful. Tooth enamel is the visible outer layer that protects the inner parts of the teeth and gives the smile its white appearance.
At home, make sure your child brushes their teeth twice a day with a hydroxyapatite toothpaste and a soft toothbrush. Disturbances in the matrix formation process during this period of time may cause enamel hypoplasia in baby teeth. .